Wednesday, June 24, 2009
Saturday, June 20, 2009
Above and below are two of the female nestlings, there are at least three nestlings, two females and one male. There might be as many as five nestlings, though.
At the top of the post is another picture of the male you have seen photographed on this blog several times- a yellow-shafted x red-shafted hybrid (you can see his red neck crest here). The female, as not been around in the last 7-10 days and he has been doing all the feeding. The nestlings will be all right, but I am sure it is a lot of work for him.
Friday, June 12, 2009
I was so excited to find aphids on some of my goldenrod (Solidago missouriensis)- my garden is all coming together.
Every gardener knows a thing or two about aphids. They are usually green or dark-colored and are one of the most common garden pests. They have sucking mouth parts, and their mortal enemy is the ladybird beetle (Coccinella spp.), aka ladybug.
Less known is that most native aphids are host-specific, that is, they only feed on one or a group of closely related plant species. The neat thing about the aphids in my photos, Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum, is that they are red (so they are easy to spot on a goldenrod stem). This is a relatively rare aphid that feeds on tall goldenrod species.
In the literature, this species is well studied because it demonstrates some important theories of predator-prey relationships. As the patch size of the host plant gets bigger, the rate of predation on the aphids goes up. I guess in our yard now we have patchy goldenrod, and thus a great home for these aphids and the native ladybird beetles they attract.
On garden plants the wingless females are the first ones that are visible, but as their population grows or as pressure from predators increases, individuals are induced to produce wings and fly off to colonize new areas.
Delighted with these aphids appearing on a few goldenrod stems, I looked them up on the Internet to find other gardeners which which to share my delight. There must be many already delighted gardeners out there, I thought, with the proliferation of wildlife gardening, pollinator gardens, green gardening, and so on. However... I was socked at what I found. Cue the scary movie music and read on.
There were, indeed, a bunch of websites with information about goldenrod aphids.... (wait for it)... and how to kill them! Even the gentle methods destroying them and their kin with earth-friendly (not aphid-friendly) biodegradable, free range, organic, etc... insecticidal soaps.
Here is a typical thread:
Question- What are these ugly red bugs?
Answer- Aphids. You had better kill them before they kill you and your family
Question- I knew it, they looked gross. I will kill them, but how? How can I kill them without using chemicals? I am a green, earth-friendly, holistic gardener.
Answer: Use a hose and spray them off
Question: Will that kill them? I don’t want them out there, doing damage to other plants, I want them dead, after all I care about the environment and all the creatures in my garden.
Answer: Use organic soaps, rub the soap into their soft bodies, and even squish them with your hands. Don’t let any get out of your sight, they can clone themselves and they may have already laid eggs, so plan of several treatments.
You should not just go around killing things. Try to understand the biology and ecology of animals and pests, first. These aphids, like many other aphids on plants in your yard, will not affect any other plants other than the ones they are feeding on, in this case goldenrods, and their effect on goldenrod is negligible. Furthermore, since they attract ladybird beetles and their larvae, the aphids are probably a very beneficial pest in your garden.
Speaking of ladybird beetles, commercial ladybird beetles sold as bio-controls for aphids is a booming business. Using for aphids and other pests is often thought of as a better, safer alternative to other control methods. However, as a result of their popularity, several of the common ladybird beetle species in North America are actually invasive species from Europe or Asia. These were introduced to this country as bio-controls, by well- intentioned gardeners. Some species of non native ladybird beetles are now the most common ones in the mid-west and elsewhere in the US.
Let me close by saying that I do squish aphids on my vegetable plants, but not because I'm afraid of them going to my goldenrods.
Saturday, June 6, 2009
Below are some examples of what's blue at our home today.
Friday, June 5, 2009
Tuesday, June 2, 2009
Monday, June 1, 2009
As with any path, the more uniform and straight the path is the easier it is to navigate. Knowing how the path will be used is essential.
Paths in a garden can be composed of many different surfaces depending on the aesthetic and intended use. Paths can be formal (wide and uniformly surfaced, like poured concrete), or casual, (small and uneven, like stepping stones). For a garden setting, varying the texture, size and construction of paths can be a useful tool. By varying width, straightness, evenness you can guide visitors through the yard, at different speeds. In a garden it might be important to move slowly and interact with your surroundings, whereas a sidewalk, uniformity, transportation, and safety are important.
In our front yard, the urbanite path is the only way to our front door, so it is a wide, gracious, level (relatively), and easily negotiated path (constructed following the steps outlined below). In contrast, in our sideyard (see above) and backyard, in areas that receives less traffic, the paths are narrower, more uneven, and are less formal. In keeping with the casualness, we placed soil between the concrete to allow yarrow (Achillea millefolium), bee balm (Monarda fistulosa), and hairy golden aster (Heterotheca villosa) to grow, which we then mow or transplant. This has not been super successful, but not bad either.
Building an "urbanite" path
I resisted using the term “urbanite” for a long time, it seemed kind of trendy and pretentious, instead I like to call it broken concrete, but, alas, I have given in since that is what everyone is calling it now.
Anyway, I digress. It is pretty simple to make an urbanite path and it follows many of the same procedures as any sort of paver path. Since the procedures are the same, and covered in more depth and better in a variety of sources from landscaping books, to online sites, I am not going into too much detail about how to lay a path, but rather considerations for using urbanite and using paths in garden settings.
The real benefit with urbanite is that is it typically free, and is a great use for old unwanted concrete. The key lies, as in most things, in the preparation.
- Determine how the path will be used
(e.g., high traffic, formal, main approach to the house or a secondary path)
- Use the largest pieces tat you can. But since they are really heavy- you might want to have someone help, and consider using a hand truck or furniture dollies to move the big pieces around or even a compact utility loader (see below)
- Major pieces should be no smaller than two square feet
- It takes a lot of urbanite for a path, so don’t underestimate the quantity
- Use 4-6” thick concrete- it is good balance between mass and ease of use, anything thinner is probably too weak, anything thicker may be too heavy
- Consider adding a curve or two (see these tips).
Where to get urbanite?
Check Craigslist, free classifieds and look around your town for sidewalk replacement projects. Contractors may be able to deliver it to you free of charge or for a slight fee (it will be worth it, if they can deliver it). In many places contractors have to pay for disposal. In Missoula many contractors grind it up or pay to have it ground for road base mix- this is a great use for the material.
What if you have some urbanite on the hoof?
If you already have some concrete you’d like to break up and re-use, I use a sledge, but you can also rent a jackhammer (electric are lighter and easier to use, gas and pneumatic are beasts). If you do rent a power jackhammer, my advice to you is let the hammer do the work- guide it and go with it. It will beat you up. If you use a sledgehammer, you have to do the work, but it is a great stress relief. In any case, regardless of the method you use, wear hearing and eye protection.
If the concrete does not have re-bar or wire mesh, it will be pretty easy to break up. If your concrete does have wire mesh or re-bar, fade back and punt. If it has reinforcement, the problem is that the chunks will be large and unmanageable- you could rent a Bobcat or compact utility loader (these are a lot of fun and it might be worth it to rent one for the heck of it, and just move stuff around, because you can). Again, I digress.
I don’t know of an easy way to tell before you get into it, but typically if is is an old sidewalk, say older than 50 years, it will probably not have reinforcement. If you are unsure call concrete cutting contractors in your area for advice- they will know.
As far as preparation, roughly mark out the path- a garden hose is nice tool for for this. And mark it with spray marking paint. A typical path should be 4’ wide, but less frequently used paths can be as narrow as you like, but try to keep them wider than 1.5’.
How to prepare the site and install an urbanite path
Dig down to a depth that will give you the concrete thickness, +1” sand, and 4-8” of compacted gravel base (using 3/4 minus or road mix). If it is over well-drained soil, or if it is not in a area that is frost prone you can get away with a lesser amount of compacted gravel.
Once you have dug down to the depth, install landscape fabric to keep weeds out and to keep the gravel from working its way into the ground. Also, add edging to the sides of the path to keep the urbanite path from shifting and to keep lawn (if applicable) out of the path. You can either use lawn edging first or specially designed brick or paver edging you can install after the project is complete. Adding edging in advance of the gravel base makes screeding a lot easier and it will provide a constant edge and level line for the project.
The next step is to add the gravel base. Add gravel in 2-3 in lifts, that is, a few inches thick at a time, and compact it, and add another few inches until you have reached the depth of concrete thickness + 1” sand. Screed the gravel to get it roughly level (Finally leveling will be done with the sand and the individual concrete pieces). Set in approximately 1” of sand, and screed again.
Now the fun begins.
Start by setting the concrete chunks next to the path and roughly layout the path in 3-4’ sections. Set the large pieces first and fill in with smaller ones. Spend some time selecting pieces, and have fun with this part. You might have to fine-tune some pieces, and this is easily done with a 2- 3 lb. drilling hammer (also called a fist maul or little sledge hammer), and a cold chisel or brick chisel. For breaking larger pieces, use a 6 lb. sledge. I like a 6 lb. sledge because it is a good balance between precision (small hammer) and mass (big hammer).
Set a few pieces and make any final adjustments by adding or subtracting sand. A rubber mallet is very useful for setting the chunks of concrete. Check the individual pieces for level and make sure they align with one another. Take your time here.
Once all the pieces are installed, spread about ½ inch of sand over the entire walkway and sweep it into the cracks, add more sand and walk on it for a few days and reapply sand as necessary. If you are working with a large area, use a plate compactor to vibrate and set the concrete in the sand and to work the sand into the cracks. In any case, the pieces will shift slightly and sand will fill any voids. After a few days, sweep off the remaining sand and enjoy your project.
Urbanite paths can be a formal or informal (rustic) as you would like or as it suits the rest of your landscape and your personal aesthetic. The thing to keep in mind is that urbanite is just a paving material, and site preparation and planning are essential.